AIDS (Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome: AIDS) It is the final illness of HIV infection (HIV) that destroys white blood cells. Causing immunity to be unable to fight off infections that enter the body Therefore causing various illnesses which can lead to death There is currently no way to cure AIDS. Only drugs can slow disease development and reduce AIDS mortality. If an infected person is aware of it and receives treatment from the beginning It may help prevent HIV infection spreading into the AIDS stage.
Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) is a virus that scientists believe to originate from chimpanzees in Africa. Which was originally the HIV virus (Simian Immunodeficiency Virus (SIV) that has spread and developed strains into HIV and then spread to humans.
HIV destroys the immune system. Impairing the immune system Inability to fight, prevent, or eradicate infection normally The disease can be transmitted through infected body fluids such as blood, semen or vaginal fluids. The body will not be able to get rid of HIV infection. Unlike some viruses that cause sickness and flu, they will heal over time. Because if it has been infected into the body HIV will last forever.
Thailand is one of the countries that has an epidemic of HIV that causes AIDS. From the latest report of the Bureau of Epidemiology, Department of Disease Control (Year 2014) It was found that from 1984 to 2014, over the past 30 years, there were 388,621 AIDS patients admitted in public and private healthcare facilities and 100,617 deaths. In the following year (2015), an estimate of the number of AIDS and HIV-positive cases in Thailand is estimated at approximately 1,500,000.
AIDS is the final illness of HIV infection and is divided into three stages:
- The initial stage of infection Symptoms such as fever, headache, sore throat, rash, pain in the muscles and joints.
- Calm phase Often there are no obvious symptoms. Or almost no symptoms But still have the infection developing within the body
- AIDS stage Is a period in which the immune system is seriously destroyed Cause infection and illness with various diseases and the risk of death. The AIDS has important symptoms such as constant fever, fatigue, exhaustion, weight loss, sweat all night long. Chronic diarrhea, white patches or sores on the tongue and mouth
Causes of AIDS
AIDS is caused by HIV infection, a virus that destroys white blood cells. Causing the immune system in white blood cells to work impaired HIV infection is transmitted through blood-borne fluids. And through having sex with an infected person Infection from mother to child through pregnancy, childbirth, breastfeeding, use of syringes or items containing blood and fluids of an infected person, etc.
HIV and AIDS are tested with a blood sample. Which is divided into CD4 quantity detection (CD4 Count) This is a test of white blood cells in the blood. To look at the damage caused by the HIV virus destroys white blood cells. Which is where the immune system lives Detection of the viral load in the blood (Viral Load: VL) And the viral genetic material detection (Nucleic Acid Test: NAT)
Currently, there is no medicine or treatment that will eradicate HIV infection. The only drugs that slow down the development of the disease are anti-HIV drugs. Or anti-retroviral drugs (Antiretrovirals: ARVs) if the patient received the drug at the initial stage of infection. Medicines can help keep the virus from spreading and developing into severe illnesses like AIDS. By taking the drug PEP (Post-exposure Prophylaxis) This is like an emergency medicine that must be taken after exposure to HIV infection. As for how to use the drug Must be treated with the use of a combination of drugs. (Antiretroviral Therapy: ART)
Because AIDS is the final state of HIV infection. The immune system of AIDS patients is damaged and unable to resist various diseases and infections, causing many illnesses and complications such as fungal infection causing inflammation in the tissues of the mouth, tongue, esophagus or cavity. The birth of a cytomalovirus infection that is harmful to the eye Gastrointestinal tract, lungs, or other organs Tuberculosis, a chronic bacterial infection that damages organs Especially the lungs and the respiratory system It is the leading cause of death among AIDS patients.
During which organs are damaged by illness These invasive infections can also affect the patient’s nervous system. Causing symptoms such as confusion, forgetfulness, depression, anxiety, behavior changes Or have a decreased mental expression
In addition to being able to prevent the development of post-infection disease from developing into AIDS by taking correct medication to control the symptoms properly. Important methods for preventing AIDS Is to prevent HIV infection into the body Or prevent it from spreading to other people, such as taking PrEP drugs It is an oral medication to prevent infection for people who are at high risk of getting HIV into the body. The drug must be taken every day to reduce the chance of infection. Prevention, be careful about sex. If a syringe is needed Need to use a clean needle And do not share syringes with other people And if a pregnant mother has HIV Must consult a doctor for medication or treatment as recommended strictly.