Cleft Lip, Cleft Palate It is a disease that can be observed clearly. There will be fissures in the lips, under the nose, upper gums, or the palate. Or together with cleft lip and cleft palate Cleft lip and cleft palate are a common childhood disease. And is considered to be one of the congenital anomalies that occur since the mother’s womb And may be detected in the womb or after delivery It will affect the physical appearance Eating, swallowing, hearing and oral health are possible.
The appearance of cleft lip and palate
Babies can be born with either a cleft lip or cleft palate, orBoth are possible By the nature of cleft lip and cleft palate, it can be found in 3 forms as follows.
- A cleft in the upper lip and a hole in the palate As a result, the physical appearance of the face changes on one or both sides.
- A small cleft that occurs only on the upper lip Or it can reach the gums on the palate and under the nose. Resulting in a change in the physical appearance of the face
- A specific fissure on the soft palate in the mouth Does not affect the physical appearance of the face
Causes of cleft lip and palate
Cleft lip and palate can occur from the time the baby is in the mother’s womb. During the 2nd month and month3rd of pregnancy It causes an error in creating organs, including the mouth and palate. Currently, doctors do not yet know the exact cause of the disease. And believe that it may be caused by various factors as follows
- Hereditary factor It is inherited in people with a history of cleft lip and palate with family members.
- Environmental factors such as smoking or drinking alcohol during pregnancy
- Obesity during pregnancy
- Folic acid deficiency during pregnancy
- Exposure to viruses or chemicals during pregnancy
- Use of certain medications during pregnancy, such as steroid anticonvulsants, Accutane-containing acne medications, methotrexate chemotherapy This includes drugs used to treat cancer, arthritis, and psoriasis.
- Other defects, such as DiGeorge Syndrome, are caused by missing part of the 22nd chromosome, leading to abnormalities that follow, including difficulty eating. Hearing loss Anomalies on the face Including problems of the body’s immune system Thyroid problems, etc.
Diagnostics of the cleft lip and palate
Cleft lip and palate can occur from the baby in the mother’s womb or after birth. The diagnosis can be made in two ways: ultrasound. And a physical examination of the newborn With details as follows
- Ultrasound (Ultrasound) Is the use of sound waves to simulate images of the fetus. And the doctor will examine the baby’s facial structure to look for abnormalities. This test can be performed during the 13th week of pregnancy, and an amniotic fluid sample may be examined for chromosomal abnormalities, which may be found in conjunction with cleft palate disease. For ultrasound examination A cleft lip is more easily detected than a single symptom of a cleft palate.
- Newborn physical examination Is to check the physical characteristics of the baby after birth during the birth To check for abnormalities of the body such as abnormalities of the face and mouth, eyes, hips, heart, as well as testicles in male infants.
Cleft lip and palate treatment
Treatment aims to improve the ability of eating, speaking, hearing, as well as physical appearance to function normally. Treatment can be performed by surgical methods. The surgery will take approximately 1-2 hours. The pattern of the surgery will depend on the individual patient’s condition and symptoms. With details as follows
- Cleft lip surgery It will be done within 12 months after delivery. The doctor will make sutures to join the fissures in the lip and under the nose.
- Surgery for the cleft palate This is done when the child is 18 months or earlier. The doctor will make stitches to close the fissures in the soft palate or hard palate in the mouth.
- Ear tube surgery This is done when the child is 6 months old.It is a surgery to drain fluid in the middle ear. And reduce the risk of developing infections leading to hearing loss.
- Surgery to repair the cleft in the gums using bone. This is done when the child is 8-12 years old.
- Surgery to improve the appearance and function of the lips and palate. This type of surgery may also be performed in the case of cleft lip or cleft palate surgery. Can’t make speaking performance work as usual
- Jaw or lower jaw surgery In patients with cleft lip and palate, the jaw or lower jaw is deformed.
Treatment requires a team of specialized doctors in various fields, such as pediatricians, plastic surgeons, dentists, and speech practitioners, whereby the patient care plan and individual surgical advice are provided according to the needs. Necessary and suitable for most patientsYes
Complications of cleft lip and palate
Cleft lip and palate can cause complications. It will take place in the area of dutyAssociated with cleft lip or cleft palate With details as follows
- Trouble eating Including sucking breast milk In children with palate symptoms unable to breastfeed normally. Because there are holes in the palate And in children with cleft lip, they are unable to breastfeed normally as well. Because unable to close the mouth completely May cause food and fluids to run up the nose. But nowadays, there is a ready-made nipple or palate designed for children with cleft lip and cleft palate, allowing them to suckle or eat like normal babies. Until it’s time to undergo surgery
- Ear infections and hearing problems Children with cleft palate and cleft palate are at greater risk of infection in the middle ear or otitis. And if left untreated, it can affect hearing. Or loss of hearing The doctor will surgically insert a tube in the eardrum to drain fluid. Hearing aids may be needed in some patients. And children with cleft lip and palate should have an annual hearing exam.
- Speech problems The mouth and palate are important parts of correct and clear pronunciation. Children who had cleft lip and palate had not undergone surgery. Will make the child speak unclear There is a nosebleed and difficult to hear. Surgery can help correct this problem in some patients. But some may have to continue treatment with the means of therapy To develop speaking and pronunciation
- Dental problems In children with cleft lip disease, the cleft palate is more likely to cause tooth decay. Teeth raised in the wrong position, teeth stacked, unattractive Need to create good oral hygiene. And is regularly examined or treated by a dentist Or may need to have orthodontics as well
Protection of the mouth of the palate
This disease is something that occurs since the baby is in the mother’s womb. May not be protected But can reduce the risk of disease in the next child Which can follow the following guidelines
- Get a genetic counselor If you have ever had a history of cleft lip and palate disease in your family Ask your doctor and plan your pregnancy to check your risk of disease.
- Take vitamins that are beneficial for pregnancy such as folic acid, iron, iodine, calcium, vitamin D, vitamin C, vitamin E, vitamin B12, niacin, or zinc to provide the pregnant mother with a full range of nutrients and vitamins. You should consult your doctor about the dosage and amount of vitamins and minerals that should be taken.
- Refrain from smoking and drinking alcohol during pregnancy. Avoid being in places with cigarette smoke. To reduce the risk of birth defects in the unborn child