Fertilization is the moment when the sperm is able to penetrate the egg, which happens during the woman’s fertile period. After fertilization of the egg, there is formation of the zygote, which will develop and form the embryo and, later, the fetus.
Fertilization occurs in the fallopian tubes, also called uterine tubes, and the egg or zygote begins to divide as it moves until it reaches the uterus. Upon reaching the uterus, it is implanted in the uterine wall, a process known as nidation, which takes place about 6 to 7 days after fertilization.
How fertilization happens
For fertilization to be possible, it is necessary that the woman is in a fertile period, because it is during this period that the egg is released by the ovaries.
The egg released by the ovary goes through the fallopian tubes, where it remains viable for up to 24 hours. The egg emits chemical signals capable of attracting the sperm with the aim of fertilization. Thus, when attracted by the egg, the sperm passes through the outer layer of the egg and makes it impermeable, preventing other sperm from also reaching and fertilizing the egg.
Then, the plasma membranes of the egg and sperm fuse, so that the sperm’s genetic material is released, chromatin is dispersed and dispersed so that it is possible to form the zygote. Along the fallopian tube, the cell differentiation process takes place, so that the blastocyst arrives in the uterus, which is implanted, a process called nidation, initiating pregnancy.
How to know if there was fertilization
Fertilization signs and symptoms are very subtle and, most of the time, it is not noticed by the woman. However, in some cases, the woman may experience mild colic and small pink bleeding, in which case it is also indicative of nesting, that is, that the fertilized egg has been implanted in the wall of the uterus, initiating embryonic development. .
In most cases, the woman does not notice the symptoms of pregnancy until two weeks after the nest.