Hemophilia is a genetic (inherited) condition that results in the body being unable to clot blood. As a result, people who have it will bleed longer when an injury occurs. There are three types of the most common types of hemophilia, namely hemophilia A, hemophilia B, and hemophilia C. Consider the differences in the three below.
Types of hemophilia
Hemophilia is a bleeding disorder caused by a lack of blood clotting factor proteins in the body. Blood clotting factors are proteins that help the blood clotting process.
In the human body, there are about 13 different clotting factors that work together with platelets to clot the blood. If one of the factors is reduced, the blood clotting process can be disrupted.
As a result, the blood cannot clot normally. When people living with hemophilia have sores, they can take a long time to heal.
There are three types of hemophilia that you need to know, namely:
1. Hemophilia A
Hemophilia A is often referred to as classic hemophilia or “acquired” hemophilia (acquired) because some cases are not caused by genetic factors. According to National Hemophilia Foundation, about 1/3 of cases of type A hemophilia occur spontaneously in the absence of heredity.
This first type of hemophilia occurs when the body lacks blood clotting factor VIII (eight) which is commonly associated with pregnancy, cancer and the use of certain drugs, and is associated with diseases such as lupus and rheumatoid arthritis.
Hemophilia type A is classified as a blood disorder that is more common than other types. This condition is found in 1 in 5,000 male babies.
2. Hemophilia B
In contrast to type A, hemophilia B occurs because the body is deficient in blood clotting factor IX (nine). This condition is usually inherited from the mother, but can also occur when genes change or mutate before the baby is born.
Hemophilia B is a type of hemophilia that is also found in many cases, although not as many as hemophilia A. According to the website Indiana Hemophilia and Thrombosis Center, the disease is found in 1 in 25,000 baby boys.
3. Hemophilia C
Compared to the two types of hemophilia above, cases of hemophilia C are classified as very rare. Hemophilia type C is caused by a deficiency in blood clotting factor XI (eleven).
Hemophilia type C is also called antecedent thromboplastin plasma (PTA) deficiency, or Rosenthal syndrome.
Hemophilia C is quite difficult to diagnose because even if the bleeding lasts a long time, the blood flow is very light, making it more difficult to detect and manage. Type C is also sometimes associated with lupus.
According to Hemophilia Federation of America, this condition only occurs in 1 in 100,000 people. This is what makes hemophilia C relatively rare compared to types A and B.
Does each type of hemophilia have different symptoms?
Although different, the symptoms caused by these three types of hemophilia are almost the same.
Common symptoms of hemophilia include:
- Bruising easily
- Bleeding easily, such as:
- Frequent nosebleeds
- Chapter bleeding
- Vomiting blood
- Bloody urine
- Joint pain
- Joint damage
Immediately consult a doctor, especially if you find typical symptoms, namely easy bruising and bleeding that is difficult to stop. This is important to prevent the risk of complications from hemophilia.
How do you know the type of hemophilia?
Most cases of hemophilia A, B, and C are genetic conditions. Therefore, it is necessary to carry out further tests to diagnose it.
After a basic physical examination, hemophilia can be diagnosed with a blood test to determine which blood clotting factors are lacking. This method can also tell the hemophilia doctor what type of hemophilia the patient has.
The blood sample will also determine the severity of symptoms, such as:
- Mild hemophilia is indicated by clotting factors in plasma between 5-40 percent.
- Moderate hemophilia is characterized by a clotting factor in the plasma of about 1-5 percent
- Severe hemophilia is indicated by a clotting factor in plasma of less than 1 percent.
The doctor will consider the treatment according to the severity of the hemophilia you have. To date, there is no cure for hemophilia of any kind. The use of drugs can only reduce symptoms and prevent the condition from getting worse.