Hemophilia is a blood clotting disorder that makes it difficult for blood to clot when bleeding occurs. Therefore, people who suffer from hemophilia usually bleed longer than ordinary people. Apart from prolonged bleeding, it turns out that there are other characteristics and symptoms that indicate a person has hemophilia. Anything?
The most common features and symptoms of hemophilia
This disease is caused by a genetic mutation that affects blood clotting factors, or proteins that play a role in the blood clotting process.
Most cases of hemophilia are inherited from parents who also have a genetic mutation. This disease can also appear in the absence of heredity, although the cases are very rare.
The following are signs and symptoms of hemophilia that are commonly found in sufferers:
Nosebleeds or bleeding from the nose is one of the most common symptoms of hemophilia. This condition is called epistaxis in the medical world.
At first glance, a nosebleed is indeed a condition that is not dangerous in normal people. However, nosebleeds can be a condition that is fatal in people living with hemophilia. The reason is, nosebleeds in hemophiliacs will last longer and are difficult to stop.
According to National Hemophilia FoundationThis condition is caused by rupturing of blood vessels in the mucous membrane in the nasal cavity. Bleeding can occur due to several things, such as rubbing the nose too hard, the air is too dry or hot, infection, and even allergies.
2. Bleeding gums
Another symptom that is also common in people with hemophilia is bleeding gums. Bleeding that occurs in the gums is usually caused by a buildup of plaque on the teeth.
Plaque is a build-up of bacteria left from food. If left untreated, the plaque that builds up around the teeth and gums can harden into tartar and cause the gums to become inflamed. This makes the gums more prone to bleeding.
Therefore, it is important for people with hemophilia to maintain regular oral and dental hygiene. This can be done by brushing your teeth twice a day and using dental floss or dental floss. In addition, hemophilia sufferers must also take control to the dentist to ensure oral and dental health.
Other signs and symptoms of hemophilia include bruising. There are 2 types of bruises that usually arise. First, it is located near the surface of the skin, also known as superficial bruising. Second, the bruise is deeper and is accompanied by a lump, namely a hematoma.
People with hemophilia usually experience bruising more easily in several parts of their body. This condition can occur due to a light impact. In some cases, bruises can even appear without a definite cause.
Bruises that occur without cause are usually the result of internal or internal bleeding, especially in the joints or muscles. This condition is called spontaneous bleeding.
4. Joint pain
Pain or soreness in the joints is also a fairly common symptom of hemophilia. People who have hemophilia can experience bleeding in the joints after being hit, injured, or even without any cause.
The joint is the part that connects 2 bones. Usually, joints experience inflammation or damage in the synovium and cartilage. Symptoms that arise can include warmth, swelling, tingling, stiff joints, and difficulty moving.
If left untreated, pain in the joints can lead to serious complications of hemophilia, such as synovitis (inflammation of the synovium).
5. Bleeding in the muscles
Similar to bleeding in the joints, bleeding in the muscles in hemophiliacs also causes symptoms such as swelling, pain, difficulty moving freely, and numbness.
Bleeding in the muscles usually occurs in certain parts of the body, such as the arms, quadriceps and back muscles, back muscles, glutes, groin muscles, and muscles in the calves.
6. Blood appears in the urine or feces
Bleeding can also appear in the digestive system in people with hemophilia, so that blood can pass through the urine or feces. According to the journal Clinical Pediatrics, digestive problems that can cause bleeding are gastric ulcers and H. pylori bacterial infection.
The features and symptoms of hemophilia are based on the severity of the disease
Not all of the symptoms listed above appear in all people with hemophilia. Usually, the symptoms that arise will also depend on the severity of the disease. Here’s the explanation:
1. Mild hemophilia
People with mild hemophilia usually have blood clotting factors in their body as much as 5-50% of the normal amount. In this case, the sufferer may not experience any symptoms for several years.
However, bleeding will occur when there is a wound, after a surgical procedure, or tooth extraction. These conditions will cause bleeding that is longer than usual.
2. Moderate hemophilia
The number of blood clotting factors in people with normal hemophilia is 1% to 5% of normal people. In this condition, the sufferer may bruise more frequently.
In addition, there are also symptoms of internal bleeding, especially in the joints. The parts of the body that are usually affected are the ankles, knees and elbows.
3. Severe hemophilia
Severe hemophilia occurs when the patient has blood clotting factors below 1% of the normal amount. Bleeding in the joint may be worse. In addition, spontaneous bleeding that triggers nosebleeds, bleeding gums, and bleeding in the muscles will appear more frequently without cause.
When should I see a doctor when symptoms of hemophilia appear?
Seek medical help immediately if you experience the above symptoms or any of the following signs appear:
- The presence of bleeding in the brain, such as severe headache, vomiting, decreased consciousness, and paralysis in several parts of the face
- An accident or injury that causes the bleeding to not stop
- Swelling in a joint that feels warm to the touch
Generally, the doctor will carry out the process of diagnosing or examining hemophilia by finding out any heredity from the parents. Usually this disease has been known since pregnancy or the first year when a newborn is born.
Another way to find out the presence of hemophilia in someone is to do a blood test. In some types of hemophilia, the symptoms of hemophilia can indeed appear at a certain age and are not inherited from the parents.