The process of blood clotting, also known as coagulation, is a condition in which your blood clots to stop bleeding. This condition can be beneficial, it can also be bad for health, depending on the condition of each person. The reason is, the blood clotting mechanism is needed in certain situations. However, it can be dangerous too. What are the details of the process?
Components that play a role in the blood clotting process (coagulation)
What happens when the skin is injured, injured, or blistered? Most wounds will bleed, aka bleeding even if the wound is small or maybe not much blood. Well, it turns out that the human body has its own way of treating wounds, namely by responding to the process of blood clotting or coagulation.
This coagulation makes the blood, which was liquid, turn solid or clot. This process is important to prevent the body from losing too much blood in the event of an injury or injury. In the medical world, this coagulation process is also known as hemostasis.
When there is bleeding, whether it’s a little or a lot, the body will immediately signal the brain to carry out the blood clotting process. In this case, the part of the body that is very relied on to clot blood is blood clotting factor, which is a protein found in the blood.
Before knowing how the process is, it’s a good idea to know in advance what the main components in the body play a role.
Some components or elements in the blood that help hemostasis or blood clotting include:
Platelets, also known as platelets, are disc-shaped cells found in the blood. Platelets are produced by cells in the bone marrow called megakaryocytes.
The main role of platelets is to form blood clots or clots, so that bleeding can be stopped or slowed down.
2. Coagulation factors or blood clots
Coagulation factor, also known as blood clotting factor, is a type of protein produced by the liver to clot blood.
According to the site National Hemophilia Foundation, there are about 10 types of protein or blood clotting factors that play a role in the blood clotting mechanism. In time, these factors will work together with the platelets to create a blood clot or clot when an injury occurs.
The presence of coagulation factors is strongly influenced by the level of vitamin K in the body. Without enough vitamin K, the body cannot properly produce blood clotting factors.
That is why people who are deficient or deficient in vitamin K are more prone to excessive bleeding due to coagulation factors that are not working properly.
How does the blood clotting process occur?
The mechanism or process of blood clotting occurs in a fairly complex series of chemical interactions. Here’s a detailed explanation:
1. Narrowed blood vessels
When the body is injured and bleeds, it means that there has been damage to the blood vessels. Well, immediately the blood vessels will spasm, causing vasoconstriction or narrowing of the blood vessels.
2. A blockage of platelets is formed
In the damaged part of the blood vessel, the platelets will immediately stick and form a blockage so that not much blood can come out. In order for the block formation process to proceed to the next stage, platelets will produce certain chemicals to invite other platelets.
3. Coagulation factors form blood clots
At the same time, coagulation or clotting factors will form a reaction called the coagulation cascade. In the coagulation cascade, fibrinogen clotting factor is converted into fine threads called fibrin. These fibrin threads will join with the platelets to strengthen the blockage.
4. The blood clotting process stops
To prevent excessive blood clotting, the coagulation factors stop working and platelets are taken back up by the blood. As the wound gradually improves, the fibrin threads that were previously formed will be destroyed, leaving no more blockage in the wound.
Problems that can occur in the blood clotting process
Even though it is the first response when an injury occurs, the blood clotting process does not always run smoothly. Some people who have blood clotting disorders will certainly affect this process and their health conditions, such as:
Impaired blood clotting
In some cases, there are people who are born with genetic mutations so that their bodies lack certain blood clotting factors.
When the number of blood clotting factors is insufficient, the blood clotting process is disrupted. As a result, bleeding can last longer and be difficult to stop, for example, in people with hemophilia.
In more severe cases, bleeding can occur even if the person is not injured or has any injuries. In fact, bleeding can also occur in internal organs, or internal bleeding. This condition can be life threatening.
Hypercoagulation is a condition as opposed to blood clotting disorders, in which the blood clotting process occurs excessively even though there is no injury.
This condition is equally dangerous because blood clots can clog arteries and veins. When the blood vessels become blocked, the body cannot drain oxygenated blood optimally. This can increase the risk of deadly complications, such as:
- Heart attack
- Pulmonary embolism
- Kidney failure
- Deep vein thrombosis
During pregnancy, blood clots can form in the veins of the pelvis or legs, causing serious pregnancy complications such as preterm labor, miscarriage, and maternal death. That is why, hypercoagulation is a condition that should not be underestimated.
One of the tests performed to check for blood disorders is the blood clotting factor concentration test. This test is useful for finding out what types of clotting factors are reduced from the body.
Depending on the bleeding disorder you are experiencing, your doctor will provide a treatment plan that suits your health condition. For bleeding that is difficult to stop, the commonly administered drug is a concentrate to replace the reduced blood clotting factor in the body. Meanwhile, blood clotting disorders can usually be treated with blood thinners.
By carrying out early treatment for blood coagulation disorders, this will greatly help reduce the risk of complications.