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Adenomyosis: what it is, symptoms, treatment and fattening

Uterine adenomyosis can cause severe menstrual cramps, interfering with a woman’s well-being

What is adenomyosis

Adenomyosis is a benign gynecological disease, which consists of the invasion of the muscular wall of the uterus by the endometrial tissue – which lines the inside of the uterus and undergoes flaking during menstruation. In most cases, this condition affects women over 30 years of age who have a previous history of pregnancy.

Does adenomyosis get fat?

The gynecologist and obstetrician Flávia Fairbanks says that there is no relationship between adenomyosis and weight gain. In situations in which the woman has a lot of pain, it is possible that there is a lack of appetite and a strong discouragement, which can generate weight loss unintentional by the patient.

“Weight gain can occur only due to sedentary lifestyle caused by pain, but there is no direct connection between having adenomyosis and gaining weight”, explains the doctor.

Can adenomyosis progress to cancer?

The gynecologist Marcos Tcherniakovsky explains that adenomyosis is a disease characterized as benign, as well as endometriosis. This condition can appear in different intensities for each woman, but there is no relationship between adenomyosis and cancer.

Adenomyosis symptoms

Among the main symptoms of adenomyosis, are:

  • Uterus softened and painful
  • Strong menstrual cramps
  • Menstrual irregularity
  • Pelvic pains
  • Increased menstrual flow
  • Gastrointestinal changes
  • Infertility
  • According to Marcos Tcherniakovsky, abnormal uterine bleeding, called SUA, can manifest in excess during menstruation, as well as outside the menstrual period. There is also the possibility of minor bleeding before menstruation.

    Pelvic pain, on the other hand, can progress to a chronic condition lasting more than six months. With this, the woman ends up showing an increase in cramping before menstruation and also pain during sexual intercourse.

    “This is because the uterus is the organ affected by this disease. So, in the sexual act, the contact of the penis with the cervix can cause greater sensitivity that causes pain”, explains the gynecologist.

    The feeling of abdominal bloating and gastrointestinal symptoms are other common signs of adenomyosis. Marcos explains that, due to the proximity of the uterus to the bladder and intestine, pain can occur when urinating and evacuating, in addition to burning.

    The development of adenomyosis in the uterus. Photo: IPGO The development of adenomyosis in the uterus. Photo: IPGO

    Adenomyosis can also affect conception, causing difficulty in becoming pregnant and frequent miscarriages. Thus, it is necessary that an appointment is made with a specialist to carry out the appropriate treatment for the condition.

    Adenomyosis and pregnancy

    Experts explain that adenomyosis does not directly affect pregnancy, that is, it does not cause any complications to the fetus or makes pregnancy high risk. However, it can make it difficult to get pregnant and fix the embryo, increasing the chances of early abortion. Thus, after the establishment of pregnancy, there are no risks related to adenomyosis.

    Treatment of adenomyosis

    The treatment for adenomyosis chosen depends on the health history of each patient and can be done in the following ways:

  • Clinical: the use of analgesic and anti-inflammatory drugs prescribed by the doctor to improve pain caused by adenomyosis is indicated
  • Hormonal: hormones are used to decrease menstrual flow or even stop it, such as the continuous contraceptive pill, contraceptive injection and the mirena IUD – which releases progesterone into the uterus. These options treat the symptoms, not the disease itself
  • Surgical: if the other treatment options have not worked, you can opt for surgery. In it, the gynecologist will see possible adenomyosis lesions in the uterus. “If the patient has the desire to become pregnant, we can remove the lesion more superficially. If the patient already has children, we can remove the entire uterus,” says Marcos Tcherniakovsky.
  • Diagnosis

    The diagnosis of adenomyosis is based on a combination of different analyzes:

  • In-depth investigation of the patient’s health history
  • Clinical diagnosis, with presentation of symptoms
  • Touch examination, to understand if the uterus is painful to touch
  • Imaging exams, such as pelvic and transvaginal ultrasound
  • “The best exam to close the diagnosis is the MRI of the pelvis”, says gynecologist Flávia Fairbanks.

    Causes

    There are still many doubts about the possible causes of adenomyosis. Experts believe that it can arise from genetic factors, such as a greater predisposition to develop this type of change, or even multifactorial causes, such as environmental, hormonal and lifestyle factors.

    However, according to gynecologist Marcos Tcherniakovsky, the main causes identified and most investigated are:

  • Retrograde menstruation: in menstrual bleeding, instead of the endometrium being expelled, it infiltrates the myometrium through greater vascularization
  • Metaplasia: is the transformation of cells. In this case, muscle cells could become endometrial cells, characterizing adenomyosis
  • From the outside in: a possible endometriosis that, in menstrual bleeding, instead of expelling the endometrium, it migrates to the abdominal cavity and, from there, infiltrates the uterine wall from the outside in, compromising the myometrium.
  • Sources

    Marcos Tcherniakovsky, gynecologist and endometriosis specialist, communication director of the Brazilian Society of Endometriosis (SBE), CRM 69445 SP

    Flávia Fairbanks, gynecologist and obstetrician, CRM 93879 SP

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